Once the southern part of the entire Mosor coastal slope was covered in
autochthonous forest of evergreen holm oak (Quercus ilex). This forest was cut down
due to the expansion of arable land, hence today these mountain slopes and plateaus
are overgrown with Mediterranean vegetation featuring plant species that adjusted
to the newly-created habitats that are mainly located within the underbrush and
Among the species that form the vegetation of Perun karst areas, the most
recognisable are aromatic semi-shrub and shrub species from labiates (Lamiaceae):
sage (Salvia officinalis), winter savory (Satureja montana), mountain germander
(Teucrium montanum) and thyme (Thymus serpyllum), as well immortelle
(Helychrisum italicum) and cistus (Cistus). Many of these aromatic plant species are
also today used in medicine production and as honey plants and herbs.
Flysch Perun slopes have been intensely forested with Alpine pine (Pinus
halepensis) which soon, thanks to its extreme adaptability and fast growth, became
one of the most numerous wild trees, especially covering the lower parts of the
Perun slopes. The maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens),
evergreen oak (Quercus ilex), downy oak (Quercus pubescens) and the European
nettle tree (Celtis australis) grow in higher areas and plateaus, and the Phillyrea
(Phillyrea media), mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus), South European flowering ash
(Fraxinus ornus) and laurel (Laurus nobilis) grow as high bushes or low trees.
Two shrub species are particularly distinguish themselves with their lush
appearance, thickness and visual appeal: Ephedra campylopoda which, with its
hanging dark green, leafless branches, decorated with red berry-like cones , covers
many rocks on Perun peak in spring , as well as Spanish broom (Spartium junceum),
whose branches are also leafless and dark green. This legume blooms in spring with
mildly scented yellow flowers, giving the entire landscape of Podstrana a recognisable
and particularly striking appearance during this time of the year.
The fauna on PEerun
Although the natural habitats are invaded by settlements and arable land and
do not offer optimal living conditions for wild animals, several mammals of different
feeding habits still live on the higher Perun areas: the beech marten (Martes foina),
the fox (Vulpes vulpes), the European badger (Meles meles), the European hare
(Lepus europaeus), the southern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor), small
rodents – the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and edible dormouse (Glis glis),
and a couple of bat species (Chyroptera).
The avifauna is richer in species. A couple of larger birds of prey nest on the hill
peaks: the migrant bird short-toed snake eagle (Circaetus gallicus) and resident birds
the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo). The
golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) can here only be seen in flight, searching for prey.
The following migrant birds land on Podstrana hill slopes for nesting: the hoopoe
(Upupa epops), the Eurasian Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriolus), the tawny pipit (Anthus
campestris), the black-eared wheatear (Oenanthe hispanica) and many others, and
the following species use it as their habitat: the common blackbird (Turdus merula),
the blue rock thrush (Monticola solitarius) and the great tit (Parus major). The
common residents of the open field and terrain are the rock partridge (Alectoris
graecaand a couple of finch species (Fringilidae): the European goldfinch (Carduelis
carduelis), linnet (Acanthis cannabina), the European greenfinch (Carduelis chloris)
and the European serin (Serinus serinus). The black-headed bunting (Emberiza
melanocephala), whose males are known for their extraordinary beauty and
elegance, is a very picky bird that mainly nests on vines in vineyards.
The rather rich reptile fauna includes only one poisonous snake – the viper
(Vipera ammodytes), whose bite can be deadly, and a dozen of other species of non-
poisonous snakes and lizards (European legless, copperhead). The rare water habitats
are home to an endemic amphibian, a frog – the yellow-bellied Toad (Bombina
The invertebrate fauna includes several recognisable species including
butterflies Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae and Lycaenidae, as well as some species
of springtails and spiders.